Optical media disk such as of operating system and game installer or multimedia content (Blu-ray/DVD/CD movie or audio) are very prone to scratches. Optical disk could be copied to your local disk as a backup image. The process could then be reversed when you need get your image back to an optical disk.

This could be easily done in Linux using dd at the terminal.

Create ISO image of optical disk in Linux:

  1. Launch terminal application.
  2. Get device name of optical drive.
    $ dmesg | egrep -i 'cdrom|dvd|cd/rw|writer'
    [    6.834672] sr 3:0:0:0: [sr0] scsi3-mmc drive: 1x/1x writer dvd-ram cd/rw xa/form2 cdda tray
    [    6.835440] cdrom: Uniform CD-ROM driver Revision: 3.20
  3. Insert optical media to drive.
  4. Check size of optical media.
    $ fdisk -l /dev/sr0
    Disk /dev/sr0: 748 MiB, 784334848 bytes, 382976 sectors
    Disk model: VMware SATA CD01
    Units: sectors of 1 * 2048 = 2048 bytes
    Sector size (logical/physical): 2048 bytes / 2048 bytes
    I/O size (minimum/optimal): 2048 bytes / 2048 bytes
    Disklabel type: dos
    Disk identifier: 0x73a9f942
    
    Device     Boot   Start     End Sectors  Size Id Type
    /dev/sr0p1 *          0 1531903 1531904  2.9G  0 Empty
    /dev/sr0p2      1215132 1222619    7488 14.6M ef EFI (FAT-12/16/32)
  5. Check available size of target location.
    $ df -h /home/user/
    Filesystem      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
    /dev/sda2        20G  5.2G   14G  28% /
  6. Clone CD/DVD/Blu-ray disk to an image file using dd.
    $ dd if=/dev/sr0 of=/home/user/cdimage.iso status=progress
    757838336 bytes (758 MB, 723 MiB) copied, 24 s, 31.6 MB/s
    1531904+0 records in
    1531904+0 records out
    784334848 bytes (784 MB, 748 MiB) copied, 24.5369 s, 32.0 MB/s
  7. Check checksum of both optical media and image to confirm.
    $ md5sum /dev/sr0 /home/user/cdimage.iso
    9a659c92b961ef46f5c0fdc04b9269a6  /dev/sr0
    9a659c92b961ef46f5c0fdc04b9269a6  /home/user/cdimage.iso
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