Ubuntu does not automatically install certain media codec during installation due to licensing reason. You can install these codecs during Ubuntu installation by ticking the checkbox to install additional packages.

These media codecs however are available in Ubuntu's apt repository and can easily be installed from the command line. Ubuntu also make it easier to install them all by packaging the media codecs in a meta package named ubuntu-restricted-extra.

Steps to install proprietary media codec on Ubuntu:

  1. Launch a terminal application.
  2. Update apt's package application list from repository.
    $ sudo apt update
    [sudo] password for user: 
    Get:1 http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu focal-security InRelease [107 kB]
    Hit:2 http://jp.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu focal InRelease               
    Hit:3 http://jp.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu focal-updates InRelease
    Hit:4 http://jp.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu focal-backports InRelease
    Fetched 107 kB in 2s (61.1 kB/s)
    Reading package lists... Done
    Building dependency tree       
    Reading state information... Done
    All packages are up to date.
  3. Install ubuntu-restricted-extras package using apt.
    $ sudo apt install --assume-yes ubuntu-restricted-extras
    Reading package lists... Done
    Building dependency tree       
    Reading state information... Done
    The following additional packages will be installed:
      cabextract chromium-codecs-ffmpeg-extra gstreamer1.0-libav
      gstreamer1.0-plugins-ugly gstreamer1.0-vaapi i965-va-driver
      intel-media-va-driver liba52-0.7.4 libaacs0 libaom0 libaribb24-0 libass9
      libavcodec-extra libavcodec-extra58 libavfilter7 libavformat58 libavutil56
      libbdplus0 libbluray2 libbs2b0 libchromaprint1 libcodec2-0.9 libdvdnav4
      libdvdread7 libfftw3-double3 libflite1 libgme0 libgsm1
      libgstreamer-plugins-bad1.0-0 libigdgmm11 liblilv-0-0 libmpeg2-4
      libmysofa1 libnorm1 libopencore-amrnb0 libopencore-amrwb0 libopenmpt0
      libpgm-5.2-0 libpostproc55 librubberband2 libserd-0-0 libshine3
      libsidplay1v5 libsnappy1v5 libsord-0-0 libsratom-0-0 libssh-gcrypt-4
      libswresample3 libswscale5 libva-drm2 libva-wayland2 libva-x11-2 libva2
      libvdpau1 libvidstab1.1 libvo-amrwbenc0 libx264-155 libx265-179
      libxvidcore4 libzmq5 libzvbi-common libzvbi0 mesa-va-drivers
      mesa-vdpau-drivers ocl-icd-libopencl1 ttf-mscorefonts-installer
      ubuntu-restricted-addons unrar va-driver-all vdpau-driver-all
    Suggested packages:
      gstreamer1.0-vaapi-doc i965-va-driver-shaders libbluray-bdj libdvdcss2
      libfftw3-bin libfftw3-dev serdi sidplay-base sordi opencl-icd
      libvdpau-va-gl1 nvidia-vdpau-driver nvidia-legacy-340xx-vdpau-driver
      nvidia-legacy-304xx-vdpau-driver
    Recommended packages:
      gstreamer1.0-fluendo-mp3
    The following NEW packages will be installed:
      cabextract chromium-codecs-ffmpeg-extra gstreamer1.0-libav
      gstreamer1.0-plugins-ugly gstreamer1.0-vaapi i965-va-driver
      intel-media-va-driver liba52-0.7.4 libaacs0 libaom0 libaribb24-0 libass9
      libavcodec-extra libavcodec-extra58 libavfilter7 libavformat58 libavutil56
      libbdplus0 libbluray2 libbs2b0 libchromaprint1 libcodec2-0.9 libdvdnav4
      libdvdread7 libfftw3-double3 libflite1 libgme0 libgsm1
      libgstreamer-plugins-bad1.0-0 libigdgmm11 liblilv-0-0 libmpeg2-4
      libmysofa1 libnorm1 libopencore-amrnb0 libopencore-amrwb0 libopenmpt0
      libpgm-5.2-0 libpostproc55 librubberband2 libserd-0-0 libshine3
      libsidplay1v5 libsnappy1v5 libsord-0-0 libsratom-0-0 libssh-gcrypt-4
      libswresample3 libswscale5 libva-drm2 libva-wayland2 libva-x11-2 libva2
      libvdpau1 libvidstab1.1 libvo-amrwbenc0 libx264-155 libx265-179
      libxvidcore4 libzmq5 libzvbi-common libzvbi0 mesa-va-drivers
      mesa-vdpau-drivers ocl-icd-libopencl1 ttf-mscorefonts-installer
      ubuntu-restricted-addons ubuntu-restricted-extras unrar va-driver-all
      vdpau-driver-all
    0 upgraded, 71 newly installed, 0 to remove and 0 not upgraded.
    Need to get 44.0 MB of archives.
    After this operation, 186 MB of additional disk space will be used.
    Do you want to continue? [Y/n]
    ##### snipped 
  4. Read the End User License Agreement (EULA) for Microsoft TTF and click Ok.
  5. Click Yes to accept the license agreement and proceed with installation.
  6. Relaunch your application to start using the newly installed codec.

Guide compatibility:

Operating System
Ubuntu 16.04 LTS (Xenial Xerus)
Ubuntu 16.10 (Yakkety Yak)
Ubuntu 17.04 (Zesty Zapus)
Ubuntu 17.10 (Artful Aardvark)
Ubuntu 18.04 LTS (Bionic Beaver)
Ubuntu 18.10 (Cosmic Cuttlefish)
Ubuntu 19.04 (Disco Dingo)
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