You can easily create a base Debian system using debootstrap. To have a usable chroot environment, you'll also need to mount both the dev and proc filesystems. Follow these steps for more details.
sudo debootstrap sid chroot-debian http://mirror.pacific.net.au/debian/
You can change sid to stable to use the stable distribution, and to use Debian mirror closer to your physical location for faster download speed.
sudo mount -o bind /dev chroot-debian/dev sudo mount -o bind /proc chroot-debian/proc
sudo chroot chroot-debian /bin/bash
sudo umount chroot-debian/dev chroot-debian/proc
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